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It is called codex by way of metaphor from the trunks codex of trees or vines, as if it were a wooden stock, because it contains in itself a multitude of books, as it were of branches.
A codex in modern usage is the first information repository that modern people would recognize as a "book": However, the codex never gained much popularity in the pagan Hellenistic world, and only within the Christian community did it gain widespread use.
A book is much easier to read, to find a page that you want, and to flip through. A scroll is more awkward to use.
The Christian authors may also have wanted to distinguish their writings from the pagan and Judaic texts written on scrolls.
In addition, some metal books were made, that required smaller pages of metal, instead of an impossibly long, unbending scroll of metal.
A book can also be easily stored in more compact places, or side by side in a tight library or shelf space.
Papyrus became difficult to obtain due to lack of contact with Egypt, and parchment, which had been used for centuries, became the main writing material.
Parchment is a material made from processed animal skin and used—mainly in the past—for writing on. Parchment is most commonly made of calfskin, sheepskin, or goatskin.
It was historically used for writing documents, notes, or the pages of a book. Parchment is limed, scraped and dried under tension.
It is not tanned, and is thus different from leather. This makes it more suitable for writing on, but leaves it very reactive to changes in relative humidity and makes it revert to rawhide if overly wet.
Monasteries carried on the Latin writing tradition in the Western Roman Empire. Cassiodorus , in the monastery of Vivarium established around , stressed the importance of copying texts.
Benedict of Nursia , in his Rule of Saint Benedict completed around the middle of the 6th century later also promoted reading.
XLVIII , which set aside certain times for reading, greatly influenced the monastic culture of the Middle Ages and is one of the reasons why the clergy were the predominant readers of books.
The tradition and style of the Roman Empire still dominated, but slowly the peculiar medieval book culture emerged. Before the invention and adoption of the printing press , almost all books were copied by hand, which made books expensive and comparatively rare.
Smaller monasteries usually had only a few dozen books, medium-sized perhaps a few hundred. By the 9th century, larger collections held around volumes and even at the end of the Middle Ages, the papal library in Avignon and Paris library of the Sorbonne held only around 2, volumes.
The scriptorium of the monastery was usually located over the chapter house. Artificial light was forbidden for fear it may damage the manuscripts.
There were five types of scribes:. The bookmaking process was long and laborious. The parchment had to be prepared, then the unbound pages were planned and ruled with a blunt tool or lead, after which the text was written by the scribe , who usually left blank areas for illustration and rubrication.
Finally, the book was bound by the bookbinder. Different types of ink were known in antiquity, usually prepared from soot and gum, and later also from gall nuts and iron vitriol.
This gave writing a brownish black color, but black or brown were not the only colors used. There are texts written in red or even gold, and different colors were used for illumination.
For very luxurious manuscripts the whole parchment was colored purple , and the text was written on it with gold or silver for example, Codex Argenteus.
Irish monks introduced spacing between words in the 7th century. This facilitated reading, as these monks tended to be less familiar with Latin.
However, the use of spaces between words did not become commonplace before the 12th century. It has been argued that the use of spacing between words shows the transition from semi-vocalized reading into silent reading.
The first books used parchment or vellum calfskin for the pages. The book covers were made of wood and covered with leather.
Because dried parchment tends to assume the form it had before processing, the books were fitted with clasps or straps. During the later Middle Ages , when public libraries appeared, up to the 18th century, books were often chained to a bookshelf or a desk to prevent theft.
These chained books are called libri catenati. At first, books were copied mostly in monasteries, one at a time.
With the rise of universities in the 13th century, the Manuscript culture of the time led to an increase in the demand for books, and a new system for copying books appeared.
The books were divided into unbound leaves pecia , which were lent out to different copyists, so the speed of book production was considerably increased.
The system was maintained by secular stationers guilds, which produced both religious and non-religious material.
Judaism has kept the art of the scribe alive up to the present. According to Jewish tradition, the Torah scroll placed in a synagogue must be written by hand on parchment and a printed book would not do, though the congregation may use printed prayer books and printed copies of the Scriptures are used for study outside the synagogue.
A sofer "scribe" is a highly respected member of any observant Jewish community. A number of cities in the medieval Islamic world had book production centers and book markets.
The medieval Muslim world also used a method of reproducing reliable copies of a book in large quantities known as check reading , in contrast to the traditional method of a single scribe producing only a single copy of a single manuscript.
In the check reading method, only "authors could authorize copies, and this was done in public sessions in which the copyist read the copy aloud in the presence of the author, who then certified it as accurate.
In woodblock printing , a relief image of an entire page was carved into blocks of wood, inked, and used to print copies of that page.
This method originated in China, in the Han dynasty before AD , as a method of printing on textiles and later paper , and was widely used throughout East Asia.
The method called woodcut when used in art arrived in Europe in the early 14th century. Books known as block-books , as well as playing-cards and religious pictures , began to be produced by this method.
Creating an entire book was a painstaking process, requiring a hand-carved block for each page; and the wood blocks tended to crack, if stored for long.
The monks or people who wrote them were paid highly. The Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware c.
Around , in what is commonly regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould.
This invention gradually made books less expensive to produce, and more widely available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula.
Steam-powered printing presses became popular in the early 19th century. These machines could print 1, sheets per hour, but workers could only set 2, letters per hour.
They could set more than 6, letters per hour and an entire line of type at once. There have been numerous improvements in the printing press. As well, the conditions for freedom of the press have been improved through the gradual relaxation of restrictive censorship laws.
See also intellectual property , public domain , copyright. In midth century, European book production had risen to over , titles per year.
Throughout the 20th century, libraries have faced an ever-increasing rate of publishing, sometimes called an information explosion.
The advent of electronic publishing and the internet means that much new information is not printed in paper books, but is made available online through a digital library , on CD-ROM , in the form of e-books or other online media.
An on-line book is an e-book that is available online through the internet. Though many books are produced digitally, most digital versions are not available to the public, and there is no decline in the rate of paper publishing.
This effort is spearheaded by Project Gutenberg combined with Distributed Proofreaders. There have also been new developments in the process of publishing books.
Technologies such as POD or " print on demand ", which make it possible to print as few as one book at a time, have made self-publishing and vanity publishing much easier and more affordable.
On-demand publishing has allowed publishers, by avoiding the high costs of warehousing, to keep low-selling books in print rather than declaring them out of print.
The methods used for the printing and binding of books continued fundamentally unchanged from the 15th century into the early 20th century.
While there was more mechanization , a book printer in had much in common with Gutenberg. Modern paper books are printed on papers designed specifically for printed books.
Traditionally, book papers are off-white or low-white papers easier to read , are opaque to minimise the show-through of text from one side of the page to the other and are usually made to tighter caliper or thickness specifications, particularly for case-bound books.
Different paper qualities are used depending on the type of book: Machine finished coated papers , woodfree uncoated papers , coated fine papers and special fine papers are common paper grades.
Today, the majority of books are printed by offset lithography. Books tend to be manufactured nowadays in a few standard sizes.
The sizes of books are usually specified as "trim size": The standard sizes result from sheet sizes therefore machine sizes which became popular or years ago, and have come to dominate the industry.
British conventions in this regard prevail throughout the English-speaking world, except for the USA. The European book manufacturing industry works to a completely different set of standards.
Although there is great variation in layout, modern books tend to adhere to as set of rules with regard to what the parts of the layout are and what their content usually includes.
The inside front cover page is usually left blank in both hardcover and paperback books. Between the body copy and the back cover goes the end matter which would include any indices, sets of tables, or diagrams, glossaries, or lists of cited works though an edited book with multiple contributing authors usually places cited works at the end of each authored chapter.
The inside back cover page, like that inside the front cover, is usually blank. Also here often appear plot summaries, barcodes, and excerpted reviews of the book.
Some books, particularly those with shorter runs i. As the production line circulates, a complete "book" is collected together in one stack, next to another, and another A web press carries out the folding itself, delivering bundles of signatures sections ready to go into the gathering line.
Note that the pages of a book are printed two at a time, not as one complete book. Excess numbers are printed to make up for any spoilage due to make-readies or test pages to assure final print quality.
A make-ready is the preparatory work carried out by the pressmen to get the printing press up to the required quality of impression.
Included in make-ready is the time taken to mount the plate onto the machine, clean up any mess from the previous job, and get the press up to speed.
As soon as the pressman decides that the printing is correct, all the make-ready sheets will be discarded, and the press will start making books.
Similar make readies take place in the folding and binding areas, each involving spoilage of paper. After the signatures are folded and gathered, they move into the bindery.
In the middle of last century there were still many trade binders — stand-alone binding companies which did no printing, specializing in binding alone.
At that time, because of the dominance of letterpress printing, typesetting and printing took place in one location, and binding in a different factory.
The less it was moved in this condition the better: Printed sheets on the other hand could easily be moved. Now, because of increasing computerization of preparing a book for the printer, the typesetting part of the job has flowed upstream, where it is done either by separately contracting companies working for the publisher, by the publishers themselves, or even by the authors.
Mergers in the book manufacturing industry mean that it is now unusual to find a bindery which is not also involved in book printing and vice versa.
If the book is a hardback its path through the bindery will involve more points of activity than if it is a paperback. Unsewn binding, is now increasingly common.
The signatures of a book can also be held together by "Smyth sewing" using needles, "McCain sewing", using drilled holes often used in schoolbook binding, or "notch binding", where gashes about an inch long are made at intervals through the fold in the spine of each signature.
The rest of the binding process is similar in all instances. Sewn and notch bound books can be bound as either hardbacks or paperbacks.
In the most basic case-making, two pieces of cardboard are placed onto a glued piece of cloth with a space between them into which is glued a thinner board cut to the width of the spine of the book.
Bjorn Kjellstrom was closely involved with the early development of orienteering, and he is the person who introduced the sport to North America. He, along with his brother Alvar, and a friend named Gunnar Tillander, invented the modern orienteering compass.
They manufactured and marketed it as the Silva Protractor compass. This book has become the most widely read classic on the subject of map reading, compass use, and orienteering.
Over , copies have been sold in the english language editions alone. There have been very successful editions published in French, Italian, and other languages as well.
It is a short just over pages , easy to read, enjoyable book that can help you to have fun while you learn the subject quickly and effectively.
The book is organized into four main parts, plus a short, useful introduction. Part 1 covers having fun with maps alone. Then, Part 2 covers having fun with a compass alone.
Part 3 puts it together and shows you how to have fun with a map and compass together. Hadingus wants to know; so the woman muffles him with her cloak, pulls him into the ground, and they vanish.
Saxo reasons that the gods wished for Hadingus to visit in the flesh where he will go when he dies. The two penetrate a dark and misty cloud, and then continue along a path worn from heavy use over the ages.
The two see men wearing rich-looking robes, and nobles wearing purple. Passing them, they finally reach sunny regions where the herbs the woman presented Hadingus grow.
Hadingus and the woman continue until they arrived at a river of blue-black water that is fast-moving, full of rapids, and filled with various weapons.
They cross the bridge, and see two "strongly-matched" armies meeting. Hadingus asks the woman about their identity, and she responds that they are men that have met their death by sword, and that they present an everlasting display of their destruction while attempting to equal the activity of their past lives.
Moving forward, the two encounter a wall that they cannot find a way over. The woman attempts to leap over it, but despite her slender and wrinkled body, cannot.
The woman removes the head of a cock that she was carrying and throws it over the wall. The bird immediately crows; it has returned to life.
Hadingus returns to his wife, and foils a threat by pirates. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the glacier in Greenland, see Helheim Glacier.
For the band, see Helheim band. Sprache und Kultur pp. The Road to Hel: